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Abundant life

  1. Abundant life is what we all want—that extraordinary and supernatural and eternal kind of life in our day to day experience.
  2. Peter wrote in 2 Peter 1.3-4 that God has granted to us everything pertaining to life and godliness. This life is ours to enjoy.
  3. The movie "It’s a Wonder Life" starring Jimmy Stewart illustrates the point that we often reject or miss that which we really want. George did not recognize and appreciate what he already had until he thought he had lost it.
  4. God has given every believer the opportunity to live an abundant life; whether we experience this kind of life depends upon our day to day relationship with God and his Word.
  5. We often miss the opportunity to love life and to experience God’s day to day blessings. Jesus said in John 10.10, "I came that they might have life, and might have it abundantly."
  6. Jesus uses the word "life" in three ways in John 10—eternal life, an abundant spiritual life in time, and physical life. Peter wrote about the abundant spiritual life in 1 Peter 3.10; he quoted the Psalmist, "Let him who means to love life and see good days…."
  7. Both John and Peter have day to day life in mind—an abundant and fulfilling and enjoyable temporal life that is possible because believers possess eternal life.
  8. To enjoy eternal life in time, the abundant daily experience of eternal of life, we must continue to live in a growing and submissive relationship to Christ our Shepherd. John 10 includes four elements for the abundant life (John 10.3, 4, 9, 10, 14):
    • A sheep-person must be a part of the shepherd’s flock (believe in Christ).
    • The sheep-believer must follow the shepherd (listen to him and watch him).
    • The sheep-believer must depend on the shepherd (trust him, believe him).
    • The sheep-believer must obey the shepherd (faith application of the Word).
  9. The abundant life can be lived during days that are filled with routine or suffering or testing or success or prosperity because it does not depend on circumstances; it depends on relationship with Jesus Christ our shepherd.
  10. Jesus taught the disciples, in John 13-17, the central truths that they would need to live the abundant life: occupation with Christ, knowledge of the Word, faith-rest, confession of sin, spirituality, prayer, and ministry.


  1. Apollos was a Jewish believer born in Alexandria, Egypt. He had a wonderful knowledge of  the Old Testament and, apparently, had also learned under the ministry of John the Baptist.
  2. He had only been baptized with the baptism of John, which meant that he believed John’s message that the kingdom promises were about to be fulfilled through Jesus, the promised Messiah (Mark 1.1-8; John 1.19-28).
  3. Apollos was a captivating speaker and was enthusiastic about the Lord Jesus.
  4. He spent some time in Ephesus in about AD 52 or 53.
  5. He taught what he understood about the life and ministry of Jesus Christ to his audiences, even synagogue audiences (Acts 18.24-26).
  6. He was not very familiar with church age doctrine, including church age water baptism of believers, the baptism of the Holy Spirit, and the newness of life that each believer has through union with Christ and living by the power of the Holy Spirit.
  7. While he was in Ephesus, Aquila and Priscilla carefully took him aside and graciously taught him “in the way of God more accurately.” The Bible does not specify which doctrines they taught him, but the contexts of Acts 18-19 and 1 Corinthians seem to indicate that Aquila and Priscilla instructed him on the distinctions between Israel and the church, about John’s baptism and church age believer’s baptism, about the eternal life gospel, about the doctrine of Christ, and possibly other basic Christian life doctrines.
  8. Apollos humbly received their instruction (Acts 18.26). As a result, in about AD 53, Apollos went to Corinth where he became more effective for the Lord (Acts 18.27).
  9. While in Corinth, he used Scripture to demonstrate to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ (Acts 18.28).
  10. Paul recognized Apollos as a leader and valuable fellow-worker for the spiritual growth of the Corinthian church (1 Corinthians 3.4-6, 22; 4.6).
  11. Apollos became very prominent at Corinth, so much so that when the church split into factions, one faction claimed to follow Apollos (1 Corinthians 1.12-14).
  12. The carnal Christians became such a problem in Corinth that Apollos left; Paul encouraged him to return (1 Corinthians 16.12).
  13. Paul, near the end of his own life, spoke highly of Apollos (Titus 3.13).
  14. Apollos teaches us many things:
    • The importance of humility
    • Spiritual enthusiasm.
    • Eagerness to learn Bible doctrine.
    • A willingness to work together in the ministry with other believers.
    • The value of biblical preparation so that one may teach the Word of God—especially to demonstrate from the Scripture that Jesus is the Christ—and the value of a sustained ministry over many years.
  15. Spiritual growth and service for Christ thrive when a knowledge of Bible doctrine combines with graciousness, humility, willingness to learn, and enthusiasm for teaching the Word.


  1. Apologetics is the biblical and reasoned defense of the biblical faith.
  2. God gives us many opportunities to give evidence to others that what we believe is true. We talk with people about the evidence for the existence and nature of God, for Jesus Christ—his life and times, physical resurrection—, for the reliability of the Bible, for Christianity and pagan myths, for the origin of the universe and of man, for miracles, for salvation by faith alone in Christ alone, for biblical and non-biblical worldviews, and for other doctrines of the Word of God.
  3. When we answer the critic’s questions, explain why we believe what we believe, and challenge them to consider what the Bible says, we are not only evangelizing and teaching, we are also practicing apologetics.
  4. The word “defense” comes from the Greek word ajpologiva, apologia, “a speech of defense or reply.” 
  5. The writers of the New Testament use the word eight times—Acts 22.1; 25.16; 1 Corinthians 9.3; 2 Corinthians 7.11; Philippians 1.7 and 16; 2 Timothy 4.16, and 1 Peter 3.15.
  6. Peter tells us to be ready to give a defense for the hope that is in us: “but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence” (1 Peter 3.15).
  7.  Paul had an apologetics ministry in Athens, in Ephesus, and even in Jerusalem.
  8. In Athens he spoke with Jews, God-fearing Gentiles, and Greek philosophers:  “reasoning [dialevgomai, dialegomai, to discuss, converse, preach] in the synagogue with the Jews and the God-fearing Gentiles, and in the market place (Acts 17.17)…. they took him and brought him to the Areopagus, saying, ‘May we know what this new teaching is which you are proclaiming?’” (Acts 17.19).
  9. In Ephesus he spoke in the synagogue and in the school of Tyrannus: “reasoning [dialevgomai, dialegomai, to discuss, converse, preach] and persuading [peivqw, peitho, to persuade, to have confidence] them about the kingdom of God (Acts 19.8)….reasoning [dialevgomai, dialegomai, to discuss, converse, preach] daily in the school of Tyrannus”(Acts 19.9). 
  10. In Jerusalem Paul gave his defense for his faith in Christ and for his apostolic ministry: “Brethren and fathers, hear my defense [ajpologiva, apologia, a speech or reply of defense] which I now offer to you” (Acts 22:1).
  11. Apollos was using apologetics when he discussed the faith with some Jews in Corinth: “for he powerfully refuted [diakatelevgcomai, diakatelenchomai, refute completely] the Jews in public, demonstrating [ejpideivknumi, epideiknumi, demonstrate, show, point out] by the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ” (Acts 18.28).
  12. Paul wrote from a Roman prison that he had a ministry of “defense [ajpologiva, apologia, a speech or reply of defense] and confirmation of the gospel” (Philippians 1.7) and “I am appointed for the defense [apologia, apologia, a speech or reply of defense] of the gospel” (Philippians 1.16).
  13. Paul also instructed Titus that the elders-overseers-pastor-teachers should “be able…to refute [ejlevgcw, elencho, expose, convince, correct] those who contradict” sound doctrine (Titus 1.9). Luke (Luke 1.1-4 and Acts 1.1-3) and Paul (1 Corinthians 15) used evidence to give others a reason to consider that Jesus Christ is the only savior.
  14. Jude interrupted a letter about our salvation through Christ and instead wrote to encourage believers to earnestly contend for the faith: “I felt the necessity to write to you appealing that you contend earnestly [ejpagwnivzomai, epagonizomai, to contend, to fight] for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints” (Jude 3).
  15. Then in Jude 22-23, he made it clear that there are some who have doubts about the Word of God. We ought to have mercy on them, which includes teaching, answering questions, and challenging them so that they might grow strong in the biblical faith.
  16. Apologetics is a part of witnessing, teaching, and preaching God’s word. Apologetics is doing what God said to do. Apologetics is giving evidence that “the Word of God is living and powerful” (Hebrews 4.12).
  17. We are all called upon to “always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence” and “contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints.”


  1. Authority is the right to rule and make decisions.
  2. Divine authority and human authority ought not to contradict each other.
  3. God is the absolute authority and the source of all legitimate human authority (Psalm 135.6).
  4. God has created the universe (John 1.1-4; Colossians 1.16) and his authority maintains the consistent function of the universe (Colossians 1.17). 
  5. God’s authority establishes human freedom; human freedom requires responsibility; responsibility protects human freedom and restrains human authority (Romans 13.1-6; 1 Peter 2.13-17).
  6. God has instituted human authority in order to
    • Protect free will.
    • Protect the human race from self destruction
    • Give order to life
    • Maintain peace
    • Allow the gospel and doctrine to spread and influence people
    • Support the believers’ witness by their authority orientation in a rebellious world.
  7. He has expressed his authority in His written Word and through Jesus Christ, the living Word (Hebrews 1.1-2; 4.12; 2 Tim 3.16). 
  8. Believers have the responsibility to obey human authority except where that authority contradicts God’s authority as expressed in His Word (Daniel 6.4-17; Acts 4.19-20; Acts 5.29).  
  9. Believers are under the authority of the laws of their nation; we are to obey them. The exception is that when the laws contradict Scripture, we must obey the Scripture instead of the human laws. Peter and John state this in Acts 4.19-20; Peter records the principle in 1 Peter 2.11-23. Daniel faced this same kind of challenge in Daniel 6.4-17.
  10. When we choose for God instead of the human law, we honor God and His plan and at the same time help our country by presenting God’s truth.  If we are arrested or harassed we must take the consequences, all the while continuing to learn the Word of God, living by the Holy Spirit, living by faith, and applying the Word of God to life.
  11. We have recently studied principles related to these concepts in the doctrines of Human Freedom and Spiritual Freedom, Divine Institutions, Divine Establishment, and Authority.


  1. Baptism is a word used many times in the New Testament and is often misunderstood.
  2. The Greek word “to baptize” is baptizw, which means to dip, immerse, plunge, overwhelm, and so to identify with something.
  3. There are at least seven different kinds of baptism mentioned in the Bible.
  4. Three are wet baptisms and four are dry baptisms. The three wet baptisms use water:
    • The baptism of John meant that one believed John’s message that the kingdom promises were about to be fulfilled through Jesus, the promised Messiah (Mark 1.1-8; John 1.19-28); .
    • The baptism of Jesus by John was a one-time only baptism. This baptism identified Jesus with God the Father’s plan that Jesus was the Son of God, the Messiah, the savior of the world, and the king of Israel (Matthew 3.13-17; Luke 3.21-22);
    • Church age water baptism emphasized a believer’s relationship with Christ in Christ’s death to sin and resurrection to new life (Matthew 28.19; Acts 8.12 and 16; Acts 16.33; 1 Corinthians 1.13-17).
  5. The following four baptisms are dry baptisms:
    • The baptism of the Holy Spirit began after Pentecost and is unique to the church age; each believer is indwelt by the Holy Spirit and made a member of Christ’s spiritual body, the church (1 Corinthians 12.12-14);
    • The baptism of Moses occurred during the Exodus. Israel was baptized into Moses when the nation went through the Red Sea and was led by the cloud during the day; the nation was identified with Moses, their leader (1 Corinthians 10.2);
    • The baptism of the cup is a figure of speech which Jesus used to identify himself with his suffering and death on the cross. Jesus said that both James and John would also drink his cup, by which Jesus meant that they would suffer severely for him (Mark 10.38-39; Mark 14.36; Matthew 20.22-23; Luke 12.50);
    • The baptism of fire is a reference to some kind of judgment upon those who reject Christ as Messiah. It will probably be fulfilled at his second coming to earth (Matthew 3.10-12; Luke 3.16-17). Mark 1.8 and John 1.33 are parallel passages and omit the baptism of fire because they also omit the judgment material that Matthew and Luke contain.

Baptism with the Holy Spirit

  1. Baptism with the Holy Spirit is the act by which the Holy Spirit indwells every believer in Christ the moment he believes, and by this indwelling God identifies and unites that believer with Christ and his spiritual body, the church (1 Corinthians 12.13).
  2. One cannot be a believer and in the church apart from the baptism of the Holy Spirit; the Corinthian believers, with all of their spiritual failures, had been baptized with the Holy Spirit (Acts 11.15-18; 1 Corinthians 12.13; Ephesians 1.22-23; Romans 8.9).
  3. The baptism of the Holy Spirit provides the basis for Christian living.
    • Because the baptism of the Holy Spirit identifies each believer with Christ in Christ’s death to sin and in Christ’s new resurrection kind of life (Romans 6.1-11).
    • Because the baptism of the Holy Spirit is our spiritual circumcision—the removal of the legal control over us by our unbeliever self (Colossians 2.11), and
    • Because the baptism with the Holy Spirit is the time when the Holy Spirit comes to indwell the believer in Christ (Acts 11.15-18). Jesus prophesied the baptism of the Holy Spirit in Matthew 3.11, Mark 1.8, Luke 3.16, John 1.33, and Acts 1.5.
  4. Jesus said, in Acts 1.5,  that the baptism of the Holy Spirit was future to his ascension. It was therefore not a part of the age of Israel, but was the fundamental and basic sign of the church age.
  5. The baptism of the Holy Spirit first occurred in Acts 2.1-4 with Jews. God later proved that everyone who believes in Christ will be baptized with the Holy Spirit when he visibly gave the baptism of the Holy Spirit to Samaritans in Acts 8.12-17, to Gentiles in Acts 10.43-48, and to Old Testament believers in Acts 19.1-6.
  6. Luke wrote in Acts 10 that, while Peter was preaching to Jews and Gentiles at Cornelius’ house in Caesarea, Peter and his audience witnessed the coming of the Holy Spirit upon Gentiles who believed the gospel (Acts 10.44-47).
    • Shortly after, Peter went to Jerusalem where Jewish believers criticized him for eating with those Gentiles. He explained to them what had happened when the Gentiles believed the gospel that he delivered; Peter said that he saw the Gentiles being baptized with the Holy Spirit.
    • Peter then explained that this baptism was exactly what Christ had predicted when he spoke to his disciples before his ascension (Acts 1.5 and Acts 11.15-18).
  7. The baptism of the Holy Spirit is something that God does for each believer in Christ; it is not something that is felt; it occurs at the time a person believes in Christ; it is supernatural; it cannot be improved upon; it is complete and perfect when it happens; it is not now evidenced by signs, though several times in the young church it was evidenced by signs in order to confirm that the Holy Spirit was given to every church age believer in Christ; it is revealed only by the Word of God; it is the basis for the supernatural Christian life.


  1. Barnabas was Jewish, a Levite, and a believer in Christ.
  2. He was originally from Cyprus; he was generous; he had an active, varied, and wonderful ministry.
  3. His original name was Joseph, but the apostles gave him the name Barnabas, which means Son of Encouragement (Acts 4.36-37).
  4. He was the cousin of John Mark (Colossians 4.10). 
  5. Barnabas, about A.D. 37, at a time when  believers were still somewhat afraid of Saul, took Saul in hand and introduced him to the apostles in Jerusalem (Acts 9.26-27).
  6. Later, when the Jerusalem church heard that a large number of Greeks at Antioch were believing in Christ, the leaders sent Barnabas there to witness the ministry (Acts 11.22). After seeing the good ministry, he encouraged the believers at Antioch.
  7. Luke records that Barnabas was a good man and full of the Holy Spirit and faith (Acts 11.23-24).
  8. Barnabas then went to get Saul who was in Tarsus; Saul and Barnabas spent a year in Antioch teaching the Word of God (Acts 11.25-30).
  9. Barnabas was Saul’s partner on the first missionary trip (Acts 13-14, about A.D. 48-49) and at the Jerusalem council meeting (Acts 15.1-5). 
  10. Barnabas served in evangelism, teaching, reconnaissance, financial responsibilities, and encouragement of believers.
  11. Though he was a grace oriented believer, even he gave in to the pressures of the legalists in Antioch; these legalists objected to Peter sitting down to dinner with Gentiles, and so Barnabas, along with Peter, separated from the Gentiles until Paul corrected them (Galatians 2.11-19).
  12. Barnabas and Paul disagreed on whether they should take John Mark with them on the second missionary trip; Barnabas said yes, Paul said no. The two men separated; Barnabas took John Mark to Cyprus and Paul took Silas and began the second trip (Acts 15.36-40, about A.D. 50). 
  13. Barnabas illustrates biblical application for us:
    • Be flexible in the use of gifts and training.
    • The prepared believer has a variety of ministry opportunities.
    • No service is insignificant.
    • Spiritual failure does not remove one from future ministry.
    • Be an encouragement to others, not a discouragement
    • Beware of legalism.


  1. Blessings are good things—a word, an act, a gift—that encourage us, lift us, and help us.
  2. All blessing begins with God because he created the heavens and the earth and all living creatures.
  3. The American Heritage Dictionary defines the verb bless “to confer well-being or prosperity on” and the noun “something promoting or contributing to happiness, well-being, or prosperity; a boon.” These definitions are accurate for the Hebrew (krb, berach,  hkrb berachah) and the Greek  (eulogew eulogeo, euloghto~ eulogetos, makario~ makarios) words for blessing.
  4. Believers receive unique blessings because of their relationship with Christ.
  5. God blessed Israel in the past and will bless Israel in the future because of the conditional covenant with Moses (Mosaic law, Deuteronomy 28) and unconditional covenants for Israel (Abrahamic, Genesis 12.1-3, Palestinian, Deuteronomy 30.1-10, Davidic, 2 Samuel 7.14-16, and New, Jeremiah 31.31-34).  
  6. God has blessed every church age believer with positional blessings—the same blessings for all believers—simply because we are believers in Christ (Ephesians 1.3; Romans 4.6-9; Galatians 3.14).
  7. He also blesses individual believers with experiential blessings—individualized blessings for those who practice accurately the Christian life  (Acts 20.35; Romans 15.29; Galatians 4.15; Hebrews 6.7; 1 Peter 3.14; 4.14; Revelation 22.7).
  8. God also has blessings for believers during the millennial kingdom and eternity; these begin with Christ coming for his church (Titus 2.13; Matthew 5.3-11; Revelation 19.9; 20.6).


  1. Christology is the biblical study of Christ. Christ (Cristov" christos) is the Greek translation of the Hebrew word  for “anointed one,” “Messiah” (j'yvim; massiah).
  2. Names for Christ:
    • Jesus Christ is God (John 1.1-14;  Hebrews 1.1-4,8).
    • The Son of God (Luke 22.70; Hebrews 1.4-5).
    • Man (Luke 2; 1 Timothy 2.5).
    • Prophet (Luke 24.19; John 6.14).
    • Priest (Hebrews 4.14; 5.5-10).
    • King of Israel (Matthew 27.11; John 1.49).
    • Savior (John 4.42; 1 Timothy 4.10).
    • World ruler (Zechariah 14.9; 1 Corinthians 15.24-28).
  3. Jesus, His human name, means savior (Matthew 1.21); Christ or Messiah is His title; LORD is the personal name of the revealed covenant God of Israel; Lord is a title for deity; Immanuel comes from Isaiah’s prophecy in Isaiah 7.14 and means in the Hebrew “God with us” (lae WnM;[;  lae el means God, Wn nu means us, M;[I im means with ).
  4. Jesus was virgin-conceived (Isaiah 7.14; Matthew 1.20-23) so that he would be undiminished deity and true humanity without a sinful human nature (Luke 1.35; Hebrews 4.15). This means that he had no human father; God caused Mary to become pregnant—a miracle.
  5. Christ became man when he was born of Mary in order to die for the sins of the world—to reconcile mankind (2 Corinthians 5.18-21; 1 Timothy 1.15); He was the lamb of God (John 1.29).
  6. Besides not having a sin nature, He never sinned (2 Corinthians 5.21; Hebrews 4.15).
  7. Christ is undimished deity and true humanity in one person forever (John 1.1-14; Hebrews 1.1-13; 2.14); the theological name for this is hypostatic union.
  8. When he came to earth He voluntarily restricted the independent use of certain divine attributes, though from His birth on He always is undiminished deity and true humanity; the theological name for this truth is kenosis (Philippians 2.6-8).
  9. During His time on earth, in His humanity, He relied on the Holy Spirit (Luke 4.14,18).
  10. His purpose for coming to earth was to die in our place for our sins; He was our substitute, the lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world.
  11. During the three hours of darkness, while He was on the cross, God the Father judged Christ, His son, for all the sins of all mankind (1 Timothy 1.15; 2 Corinthians 5.18-21; John 1.29; John 19.30; 1 John 2.1-2).
  12. He arose from the dead on the third day (Luke 24; 1 Corinthians 15.4 ); He ascended into heaven and sat down at the right hand of the Father forty days after He arose (Acts 1.3-9 ); He now intercedes for believers (Hebrews 4.14; 1 Jn 2.1-2); He will return for the church to take church believers back to heaven (1 Thessalonians 4.16-18; Titus 2.13), then after the seven years of tribulation on earth, He will come to earth to set up and rule His millennial kingdom (Matthew 24.27-31; Acts 1.10-11; 2 Thessalonians 1.7-10 ); at the end of the millennium, after one last Satan-led rebellion which will be followed by the Great White Throne Judgment, Christ will turn over the kingdom of God to the Father and the Father will have Him continue to rule the eternal kingdom, which will reside in a new heaven and a new earth, forever (Revelation 20; 1 Corinthians 15.24-28).

Death of Christ

  1. Christ died for the sins of all mankind—sins past, present, and future.
  2. What kind of a death did He die?
  3. The Bible says that God the Father judged his Son, Jesus the Christ, while His Son was on the cross.
  4. Christ was on the cross for six hours.
  5. The last three hours were the bad ones—He took the judgment for mankind's sins; at the end of that period of time He voluntarily died physically.
  6. Jesus was crucified at 9:00 AM (Mark 15.25).
  7. The land was darkened from noon until 3:00 PM (Matthew 27.45; Mark 15.33; Luke 23.44). Matthew wrote, “Now from the sixth hour darkness fell upon all the land until the ninth hour.” (Matthew 27.45).
  8. Why the darkness for the second three hours on the cross?
  9. The judgment was so catastrophic that the Father broke fellowship with the Son while He was bearing our sins and the sun was darkened during this time to indicate the terrible judgment and separation.
  10. Jesus voiced this terrible separation from God the Father when He cried out to him while in darkness and on the cross: “And about the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, ‘Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?’ that is, ‘My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?’” (Matthew 27.46. Also Mark 15.34).
  11. At the end of this terrible judgment, Jesus voluntarily gave up His life in physical death:  “And Jesus cried out again with a loud voice, and yielded up His spirit” (Matthew 27:50. Also Luke 23.46). 
  12. John was very precise when he recorded Jesus’ physical death: “When Jesus therefore had received the sour wine, He said, ‘It is finished!’ And He bowed His head, and gave up His spirit” (John 19:30. Also Matthew 27.50 and Luke 23.46).
  13. To what did Jesus, still physically alive, refer when he said “It is finished!”? He meant that God the Father had finished judging Him for the sins of the world. He then died physically—the second stage of His death on the cross.
  14. In mankind, physical death is a result of spiritual death. Jesus Christ was  true man; He also died physically, not because He had sinned, but because He had completed the payment for mankind’s sins and now followed humanity in physical death.
  15. Because Jesus died physically he was able to arise physically—physical resurrection.
  16. Jesus Christ was raised from the dead; He set the pattern as the first resurrected man.
  17. Paul wrote about this in 1 Corinthians 15.20-22: “But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who are asleep. For since by a man came death, by a man also came the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all shall be made alive.”
  18. At the point of His physical death the veil of the temple that separated the holy place from the holy of holies tore into two pieces from top to bottom (Matthew 27.51; Mark 15.38; Luke 23.45).
  19. The tearing of the thick veil, which occurred when He said “It is finished!” and died physically, demonstrated that He had completed the redemption of mankind.
  20. No longer was there a need for the temple sacrifices, including the day of atonement sacrifice.
  21. Note, also, that the soldiers offered Jesus a sedating drink at the beginning of His ordeal on the cross.
  22. He refused it (Matthew 27.34; Mark 15.23; Luke 23.36).
  23. Why? Because Jesus wanted to be in full control of His mind and senses; He had a world changing job to do: He had to be judged for sin.
  24. At the end of the ordeal He requested a drink and was given one (Matthew 27.48; Mark 15.36; John 19.28-30).
  25. Why did He take a drink at this time? Because He had completed the agonizing work.
  26. Again the question, What kind of death did He die?
  27. The Bible indicates that Jesus went through two stages or two kinds of death.
    • The first was the three hours of darkness and separation from the Father while He was being judged for our sins: it was dark during the day; He was alone; He was under the agonizing pain of our sins and the physical crucifixion. This separation from fellowship with the Father due to judgment for sin was a spiritual suffering or a spiritual death.
    • The second stage or kind of death was a separation from His physical body or physical death.
  28. Which does the Bible emphasize as the most important and terrible part? The three hours on the cross bearing our sins and separated from the Father was the most important.
  29. The physical torture on the cross was excruciating, yet He was strong enough to survive it and maintain mental and physical self-control.
  30. He deliberately and voluntarily gave up His physical life after He said “It is finished!”
  31. The second stage or kind of death demonstrated the completeness of His work and prepared for His physical resurrection and rule.
  32. Adam and Eve and then all mankind experienced this spiritual death or separation from God due to sin (Genesis 2.19; Genesis 3.7; Ephesians 2.1, 5; Colossians 2.13; John 3.3).
  33. Adam and Eve’s spiritual death was demonstrated in the garden when they fell: “Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves loin coverings” (Genesis 3.7).
  34. They were very much alive physically.
  35. Paul wrote to believers in Asia and said that they were spiritually dead before they became Christians by faith in Christ: “And you were dead in your trespasses and sins” (Ephesians 2.1).
  36.  In order for Christ to substitute as our sin bearer, He had to die spiritually, then die physically.